Upgrade Debian 8 Jessie To Debian 9 Stretch

debian linux

Upgrading server on a remote location is not safe unless you have KVM access. I did many Debian 8 to Debian 9 upgrade on remote server with out probem. On one server, network card name chaned from eth0 to new enp4s0 format. I had to access the server using KVM and fix network configuration by editing /etc/network/interfaces

First you need to upgrade all software on your server to latest Debian 8

Now replace content of /etc/apt/sources.list file with following


Update the software again with

It can take some time for the upgrade to finish. Once update complete, you can check with lsb_release -a command, you will see

debian upgrade

Remove unused packages with command

At this stage, server stil use old debian 8 kernal.

To boot to new Debian 9 kernal, reboot the server with

After reboot, you will see new kernal.

Nginx Web Server

Nginx Config for Laravel Application in sub folder

To run Laravel Application on sub folder of a web site, use following configuration. If you run Laravel application as main site, see Nginx Config for Laravel Application

Here you place Laravel application in a subdirectory “subFolderApp1”.


Install Skype on Ubuntu 18.04

skype install ubuntu

To install Skype on Ubuntu 18.04 (this work with other Ubuntu/Debian versions), run

Convert SSL certificate into PFX format

To convert SSL certficiate into PFX format, run

Example for SSL from namecheap/ssls


To list bluetooth devices on Ubuntu, run

To list usb devices, run

“Cambridge Silicon Radio” is the USB device i have on my PC.

umount /home device is busy

I wanted to unmount /home drive on a server.

If any program is accessing the drive, you won’t be able to unmount the disk. You need stop stop all process that use the drive.

To find the programs that use the /home partition, run


This list all process, stop the process or kill it. Now you should be able to unmount the partition with

Run a script on boot using systemd on Ubuntu 18.04

Previous versions of Ubuntu had /etc/rc.local. that get executed after system boot.

On Ubuntu 18.04, you can use systemd to start a bash script on system boot.

Create file


Create file /etc/rc.local with

You can replace “touch /root/OK” with whatever command you need to execute.

Make it executable with

Reload systemd

Enable the service

Now reboot the server, you will see /root/OK get created.

unknown filesystem type linux_raid_member

When i try mount a HDD, i get error

This is because the disk is part of RAID.

Lets check the disks avaialbe with parted -l

parted raid

parted shows /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1 as raid with same size. So its assemble raid array with command

I used /dev/md3 as other device names (/dev/md0, /dev/md1 and /dev/md2) are already in use.

Now you can mount this drive with command